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How does a phone battery work

Our smartphones use lithium-ion batteries. Cells have two electrodes – a cathode and an anode — with an electrolyte in between which allows the lithium ions to move between the electrodes. When you charge they go from positive to negative, and when you discharge they move in the opposite direction.

Dr. Daniel Abraham

“Electrical energy is changed into chemical energy during charging and the reverse happens during discharge,” Dr. Daniel Abraham, senior scientist at the Argonne Laboratory, told Digital Trends.

The battery manufacturer decides how much energy can be stored in the cell, and that determines how much energy you have available to use.

“The manufacturer decides the upper cut off voltage and the lower cut off voltage, which are fixed, and cells cycle between the two voltage ranges,” Dr. Abraham explained. “As long as you choose the voltage range appropriately, you can cycle the cell thousands of times.”

“It doesn’t matter if you have a wireless or wired charger.”

It’s not possible to exceed these limits by leaving your phone on the wireless charging pad for too long, or by leaving it plugged in overnight. You also can’t drain the cell beyond the lower cut off limit dictated by the manufacturer. These limits don’t distinguish between power sources.

“It doesn’t matter if you have a wireless or wired charger,” Dr. Abraham said. “You won’t be able to overcharge or over-discharge a cell.”

Беспроводная зарядка: плюсы и минусы

Главное преимущество беспроводной зарядки отражено в ее названии — очень удобно заряжать смартфон, просто положив его на зарядную станцию, не подключая к нему никаких кабелей и не путаясь в проводах.

Что касается недостатков, то беспроводная зарядка у большинства моделей все еще гораздо медленнее, чем проводная. Недавно Xiaomi представила первую в мире беспроводную зарядную станцию мощностью 20W. Новый Mi 9 полностью заряжается от Mi Wireless Charging Pad всего за полтора часа — а это уже на уровне проводных устройств.

  • Беспроводные зарядки: какие подойдут вашему смартфону?
  • Как увеличить время работы смартфона: 10 лайфхаков от CHIP

Как в принципе работает быстрая зарядка

Обычные зарядные устройства или порт USB способны подавать на устройство напряжение 5В с силой тока от 0.5 до 2.5А. При таких условиях современные смартфоны и планшеты заряжаются ну очень долго: от нескольких часов либо вовсе всю ночь.

Быстрые зарядки отличаются увеличенными показателями силы тока и напряжения. В разных стандартах эти значения могут достигать до 20В и 5А.

Кроме того, присутствует обратная связь от аккумулятора, позволяя адаптеру гибко менять параметры заряда.

Так, например, в технологии Quick Charge используется режим INOV (Intelligent Negotiation for Optimum Voltage), который при помощи сигналов от батареи определяет оптимальное напряжение для заряда.

Полностью разряженный аккумулятор (или близкий к такому состоянию) можно смело заряжать при большом напряжении, «заливая» половину емкости за рекордные минуты, а ближе к окончанию зарядки нужно снижать напряжение, чтобы не получить перезаряд и не испортить батарейку.

Именно поэтому все производители технологии быстрой зарядки любят хвалиться первым быстрым циклом заряда, сообщая, что 40-60% пополнятся за 30-60 минут.

Практически каждый оснащает выпускаемые девайсы «уникальным» стандартом, привязывая покупателя к аксессуарам собственного производства.

Вот самые распространенные.

Step 5: Choose Your Weapon

the choice of conductive material is crucial. not so for performance but for your device to close properly. smartphones and electronic devices in general get more and more compact with more and more technology inside, which means less «free» space. that is our main challenge. because of this i recommend using adhesive copper foil, i found that the adhesive is quite strong but non-conductive (duh..) so just placing one piece on top of another is not enough to close the circuit. that means there are two ways to go : 1. doing it all with one long piece. this method is harder because you need to carefully fold and flatten the foil without layering too much foil and without tearing the foil, which i found was pretty delicate. 2. using multiple pieces and soldering them together. while this method might be a little easier and doesn’t require super fine motor skills you still need to be careful not to use too much solder and not to heat the area too much and melt your device. of course you can use thin gauge wire if it fits. using copper foil creates another problem — it doesn’t have any insulation. my solution is just using insulation tape. one layer shouldn’t be too thick. you can cut the insulation tape to shape and choose what area you want to cover (something that is much harder when using insulated wire.

Принятие

Nokia первый принял Ци в Lumia 920 телефонов в 2012 году, и Google / LG Nexus 4 с последующим годом позже. Toyota начала предлагать Й зарядную подставку в качестве заводской опции на своей 2013 Avalon Limited , с Ssangyong второго производителем автомобилей , чтобы предложить вариант Й, а также в 2013 году.

В 2015 году исследование показало , что 76% людей , опрошенных в Соединенных Штатах, Великобритании и Китае было известно о беспроводной зарядки (увеличение с 36% в предыдущем году), а 20% используют его — однако только 16% от тех , кто использует его используют его ежедневно. Мебель ритейлер IKEA представила светильники и столы со встроенными беспроводными зарядными устройствами для продажи в 2015 году, и Lexus NX получил дополнительную Е зарядки площадки в центральной консоли. По оценкам , 120 миллионов по беспроводной зарядке телефонов были проданы в этом году, в частности Samsung Galaxy S6 , который поддерживается как Й и конкурирующие силы Matters Альянса стандартов. Тем не менее, существование нескольких конкурирующих стандартов беспроводных зарядных еще рассматривается как препятствие для принятия.

К началу 2017 года, Й вытеснил конкурирующие стандарты, без новых продуктов с участием Rezence. 12 сентября 2017 года, компания Apple Inc. объявила о том , что их новые смартфоны, тем iPhone 8 , iPhone 8 Plus и iPhone X , будет поддерживать стандарт Qi. Apple , объявил о планах по расширению стандарта с новым протоколом под названием AirPower , который бы добавил возможность зарядки нескольких устройств одновременно.

Как стандартные набирает популярность Й, ожидаются , что Й Hotspots начнет возникать в таких местах, как кафе, аэропорты, спортивные арены и т.д. Кофе Бин и Tea Leaf , основной кофе цепи США, установят индуктивные зарядные станции на выбраны крупные столичные города, а также Virgin Atlantic Airways , для Соединенного Королевства лондонского аэропорта Хитроу и в Нью — Йорке международный аэропорт имени Джона Кеннеди . Производители автомобилей были добавление QI зарядки в качестве стандартных или дополнительных функций , начиная с 2013 года .

How to choose a third-party charger

Although Qi chargers all perform the same basic function, they’re not all created equal.

Here’s a simple guideline: Buy one with a design you like and price you can afford. Most Qi chargers fall into one of two categories: pads and stands. The latter would be best for, say, a nightstand, where you just want to lay your phone down before drifting off to sleep. (Just make sure it doesn’t have overly bright charging LEDs, which could prove a nuisance to light sleepers.)

This $19 Qi charging stand from Pleson has two coils instead of just one, the better to ensure good induction.

Pleson

If you spend a lot of time at a desk, it makes sense to choose a charging stand, one that props up your phone so you can see the screen — and more easily unlock the phone with Face ID.

What features should you look for in a Qi charger? Start with these:

Grip: A rubber ring embedded in the pad can help keep your phone from slipping around. Without it, one slight bump might knock the two coils out of alignment, disrupting charging.

Coils: All it takes is a single charging coil to power your phone, but you’ll see some chargers touting two or three coils. What’s the advantage? A multicoil charger gives you more room on the pad, meaning you don’t have to be quite so precise when you lay your phone down.

Similarly, if you’re looking at stands, it’s preferable to have extra coils because different phones are different heights, and you want to ensure it connects properly.

So a small, one-coil circular pad is fine, but if you’re choosing a larger charging mat or a charging stand, opt for two or three coils. This popular Qi-certified Seneo stand, currently $18 at Amazon, offers two.

This generic charging pad is Qi-certified — and $11.

Humixx

Price: If you shop at the Apple online store, you’ll see that the least-expensive Qi charging pad runs $40 while the cheapest charging stand runs $70, for brands like Logitech and Mophie. If you’re willing to go with a lesser-known brand, you’ll save a lot.

There’s the aforementioned Seneo, for example, and I routinely see deals like this Humixx Qi-certified 10-watt charging pad for $10.99. Bottom line: You can get a perfectly good pad or stand in the $10-to-$20 range; there’s no need to spend more.

«Smart» LEDs: Not all charging pads are nightstand-friendly: Some employ very bright LEDs that could prove distracting to light sleepers. So look for one that specifically touts dim LEDs or ones that deactivate after a few seconds.

Speed: You’ll see a lot of charging pads promising «fast» charging, which pertains to how much power they can deliver to the phone. In the case of iPhones, «fast» charging occurs at 7.5 watts. Although there are some Qi chargers that manage only 5 watts, many now produce at least 10 — more than enough for fast iPhone charging. Of course, if you’re just charging overnight on your nightstand, a 5-watt pad is more than adequate.

Wall adapter: As noted below in «How does the charger get power?», not all pads and stands come with wall plugs. You may not need one, but check to see if it’s included.

Electricity and Magnetism, Together at Last

Before diving into the details of wireless charging, let’s back up for a minute and consider how electricity and magnetism work together. What you might now know about these two forces is that they’re two sides of the same coin. For example, running an electric current through a wire will create a magnetic field. And vice versa, creating an alternating magnetic field and placing a copper wire next to it will cause an electric current to flow through the wire.

Don’t believe us? You can create your very own electromagnet with some simple everyday objects, like a battery, copper wire, and iron nail

  • You first need to wrap the copper wire around the iron nail in a coil. And then you’ll take the ends of your copper wire and attach it to the terminals of your battery.
  • When you connect the battery to a copper wire, an electric current will start to flow through your wire. Obvious right? Now take something like a paperclip and place it next to your wire and it will stick to it, magnetism!
  • You can even make a second coil of wire, put it next to your first coil, then use a voltmeter and you’ll get a voltage reading on the second coil.

Making an electromagnet is simple with a few everyday items.

It’s this direct relationship between electricity and magnetism, called electromagnetism, that is at the heart of wireless charging. How wireless charging works is not much different than the simple experiment that we outlined above and uses an electromagnetic field to transfer energy between something like your smartphone and a wireless charging pad. Here’s how wireless charging works in a nutshell:

  1. First, the voltage coming is converted to Alternating Current, which gets sent to a coil in a wireless charging pad. This is called the transmitter coil.
  2. The electric current that flows through this coil produces a magnetic field, and when you place another compatible device like a smartphone next to this pad with another coil embedded inside, a magnetic field is created between both devices.
  3. Now an electric current can flow to the receiving coil in your smartphone. This current is then used to charge your smartphone’s battery, all done without needing any wires!

Wireless charging in action with a magnetic field extending between two coils. (Image source)

More simple than you thought, right? Wireless charging is just using technology that has existed for more than a century and takes advantage of the intimate relationship between electricity and magnetism. It’s the perfect yin and yang balance found in nature.

For wireless charging to power your stuff, you need particular pieces hardware in both your transmitter and receiver devices. For example, if you place a smartphone on a wireless charging pad that doesn’t have a receiver coil inside, then your device won’t charge.

Стандарты

Хотелось бы рассказать о стандартах, благодаря которым использование технологии передачи электричества по воздуху стало возможным.

Стандарт Qi

Qi («Ци», в честь термина восточной философии) разработан WPC (Wireless Power Consortium — Консорциум беспроводной электромагнитной энергии). Он является самым распространённым и поддерживается такими гигантами мобильной индустрии, как Asus, Motorola, HTC, Huawei, LG, Nokia, Samsung, Blackberry, Sony и другими. Ознакомиться подробней со стандартом и списком поддерживаемых устройств можно на их официальном сайте.

Стандарт PMA

Стандарт PMA также использует принцип электромагнитной индукции, но не может похвастаться столь большим списком производителей, поддерживающих их технологию, как у Qi. Разработан он компанией Powermat, которая в данный момент пытается бороться с нездоровой конкуренцией со стороны Qi.

Стандарт A4WP

Этот стандарт использует технологию Rezence, которая кардинально отличается от PMA и Qi. Странно то, что самый непопулярный стандарт имеет множество плюсов, в сравнении со своими конкурентами. К плюсам относится:

  • возможность зарядки через помехи (если положить книгу между смартфоном и зарядником, ничего не изменится);
  • одна платформа может обеспечить энергией несколько устройств;
  • работа в непосредственной близости с металлическими предметами и т. д.

Как это работает

Мобильное зарядное устройство не является новейшим изобретением. В электрических зубных щетках индуктивное питание применялось на протяжении многих лет. В процессе беспроводной передачи энергии используется резонансная индуктивная связь передатчика базовой станции и приемника мобильного телефона. Первичная катушка постоянно посылает тестовый сигнал отправителю для проверки изменения емкости или резонанса, указывающего на присутствие совместимого телефона. Передатчик модулирует заряд и проверяет, поддерживается ли стандарт беспроводной зарядки Qi.

После того как совместимость и потребность в энергии учтены, начинается процесс индукционной передачи энергии. При этом контакт между приемником и передатчиком сохраняется. Как только аккумулятор полностью зарядится, они перейдут в режим ожидания. Зарядка универсальная активируется и передает энергию только в том случае, если подключаемый гаджет находится на ней.

Катушки, передающие и получающие энергию, специально экранированы для того, чтобы снизить электромагнитное излучение.

An Untethered Future

One day, hopefully soon, we’ll extract ourselves from our tethered reality into the world that is 100% wireless. When that future arrives, there are endless possibilities, including:

Self-Charging Laptop Stations

Work is already underway by Intel to add integrated wireless charging capabilities into the laptops that we use every day. Not only would these laptops be able to charge themselves wirelessly, but they will also act as a base station of the sorts for charging all nearby smartphones and wireless peripherals. Could we soon enter an age where batteries are being charged at all hours of the day, just by being near your computer?

This wireless charging from Intel can power phones that are slid across the table. (Image source)

Wireless Electric Vehicles

We might even see wireless chargers being built into parking spots and charging stations for electrical vehicles. BMW recently announced that it’s working on a wireless charging system for its i8 electric sports car that can fill up its battery in only 2 hours! Maybe the next time you’re out to grab a bite to eat or catch a movie, you’ll be able to charge your car wirelessly at the same time.

A look at how wireless charging might look for electrical vehicles. (Image source)

Driving While Recharging

Forgot about having to leave your car sitting in one spot to have it charge. Over in England, they’re testing the ability to charge vehicles while they’re driving on top of wireless devices embedded directly into the asphalt. And over in South Korea, they’re working on electric buses that can charge as they drive. Now your morning commute can leave you with a fresh battery to start your day!

These EV lanes in the UK allow you drive longer without the need to stop. (Image source)

Public Wireless Charge

What if wireless charging was as freely available as something like WiFi? There are companies out there working to make this a reality by integrating wireless charging stations into public locations. That way, when you’re out and about you never need to worry about keeping your smartphone charged. Just step within the range of a wireless charging station, and you’ll be good to go.

No more scrambling to find a power outlet, just sit under this Aircharge station. (Image source)

Furniture and Everyday Objects

Last but not least, we can’t forget about all of the day-to-day objects in our homes that would benefit from wireless charging. For example, Ikea is working on a new lineup of furniture that includes lamps and tables with integrated wireless charging stations. And if we can get wireless charging working for higher power devices then we might even see simple gadgets like blenders and vacuums being operated wirelessly around your home.

Simple looking furniture from Ikea, all with wireless charging built-in. (Image source)

The reasons why wireless will take over from wired charging

Quite simply, wireless charging means that you just drop your handset devices onto the charging dock and things get to work without having to plug anything into your phone, which is significantly easier than traditional wired charging.  And it is because of this that wireless charging has many advantages.

A) You don’t need to fiddle with cables compared with wired charging

First, let’s have a look of someone’s answer to a posting on «Wireless charging benefits»

Just imagine the situation: no need to plug & unplug a cable every time you need to charge your phone, simply drop your phone on the charging pad and it starts charging without doing anything else. Everything looks elegant and neat; you don’t need to worry about where you left your cable, or charger for that matter.

Having said that, it doesn’t mean that all the wires have gone, you still need a wire for your charging base to be connected with the power supply.

B) It reduces the wear and tear on your device.

Why? As I mentioned earlier, wireless charging doesn’t need cables, which means there’s no need for a USB port anymore which removes the strain on the cable, the charging plug and the phone’s USB/Lightning port.

Furthermore, it enables manufacturers to improve the performance of your device by making them completely waterproof and dustproof, making them easier to maintain.

C) It enables multiple smartphones to charge simultaneously instead of taking all kinds of cables with you.

If you travel a lot and you have several different phones, for example, an Apple iPhone and an Android smartphone, you will be familiar with the fact that you will also need to carry both a micro USB cable and a lightning cable with you as well as a few chargers to power them when you run out of battery.

However, if all of these smartphones are wireless charging enabled, a wireless charging pad becomes the «one size fits all» solution. Fortunately, cell phones and chargers from different manufacturers are compatible so one pad can keep all your phones topped up with power.

D) It provides a safer way to transfer power to your phone, which avoids putting your personal safety and data at risk

Unlike plugging in a device, wireless charging transmits power without actually touching any exposed electrical connectors.  In another words, this reduces the chance of a connection failure and electric shocks.  If that doesn’t convince you, check this news article about the danger of using your phone while charging. Shockingly, several many injuries and even death has been linked to improper use of cables or cellphones while charging.  Sounds scary, right? But it happens.  Wireless charging can be safer because as soon as you pick it up the charging stops.

There is also a lesser-known risk associated with «plugging in to public USB chargers». These free USB public charging hubs can send and receive data while you are not aware of it, which is yet another reason why wireless charging is better.

E) Lastly, it looks so much better.  Yes, no obvious wires means that wireless charging looks cleaner when compared to the mess of charging cables.

Clearly, wireless charging gives you a much cleaner look when compared with traditional cable charging.

Step 1: Background and Clarifications

*** FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS AT YOUR OWN RISK *** take safety precautions and do not do anything you are not certain of. i cannot be held responsible to any damage you may cause to your device or to yourself ! (now, after i covered my ass, we can begin) there are a few projects similar to this one on the net. I’ve drawn ideas from everywhere and incorporated some of my own. the whole concept and basic design is based on Palm’s technology (although there are other manufacturers offering similar solutions). the Touchstone is a Palm charging dock meant for the Palm Pre smartphone, which supports wireless charging via a separately sold back cover. there are a few wireless charging technologies made by different manufacturers that all rely on the same physical concept but they are not cross-compatible, you cannot mix coils and docks (I’ve tried). i will not bore you with the physics behind the concept (although it’s quite interesting) and there’s nothing i can write that’s not already available with more professional descriptions on the net, so if you want you can google «wireless charging» and read all about it.

Какие телефоны поддерживают беспроводную зарядку

Ознакомиться с полным списком смартфонов, которые могут использовать беспроводную зарядку прямо из коробки, можно на официальном сайте https://www.wirelesspowerconsortium.com. Хотелось бы отметить, что большая часть фирм-производителей позаботились о том, чтобы их продукт поддерживал использование этой технологии.

Как быть, если вашего смартфона нет в списках поддерживаемых устройств, а пользоваться беспроводной зарядкой вам необходимо? Если у вас встал такой вопрос, то, вероятнее всего, вы счастливый пользователь продукции Apple. Пока в iPhone не предусмотрена возможность приёма электромагнитных сигналов. Однако есть альтернатива — приобретение вспомогательного аксессуара, который будет это делать за ваш телефон. Помещается он под стандартный чехол и не причиняет никакого дискомфорта.

Is it bad to fully charge your smartphone

With greater ease of charging via wireless technology, the question becomes: Is it bad for your mobile device battery to be fully charged all the time?

Venkat Srinivasan, director of the Argonne Collaborative Center for Energy Storage Science (ACCESS), said that while you cannot overcharge a smartphone or tablet battery, as the electronics will not allow it, keeping it fully charged will hasten its degradation.

«Frankly, the higher you are in the state, as you creep up to 90%, 95% to 100% charge, the more degradation the battery will see,» he said.

As a lithium-ion battery charges and discharges, ions pass back and forth between a positive electrode (made of lithium-cobalt oxide or lithium iron phosphate) and a negative electrode (made of carbon graphite).

As a battery charges, the positive electrode gives off lithium ions that move to the negative electrode and are stored as energy. As the battery discharges, those ions move back to the positive electrode to be used as electricity. As those lithium ions move back and forth, the electrolyte that acts as the transport medium degrades over time.

The higher the state of charge, the faster the electrolyte degrades, Srinivasan said.

Therefore, it’s best not only to keep your smartphone below its top charge, but also to keep the charging and discharging pendulum from swinging wildly.

«In general, if you swing the battery charge from top to bottom, that’s the worst thing you can to for the life of the battery. If you can cycle the battery between 45% and 55% that’s the best thing you can do,» Srinivasan said. «But, in general, just make sure you don’t keep it fully charged.»

Srinivasan also cautions against being too sensitive to your smartphone or tablet charging. Most smartphone manufacturers design batteries to last two to three years, so if you’re a consumer who typically replaces your phone after that amount of time, you don’t need to be overly concerned with charging rates.

What about cycle limits

Different batteries have different standards, but it’s accepted that beyond a certain number of charge cycles, a battery is going to degrade. In the case of Apple’s iPhone devices, for example, batteries are designed to retain up to 80 percent of original capacity after 500 complete charge cycles.

One of the criticisms levelled at wireless charging, as explained in this ZDNet article, is that when phones charge via the cable the battery gets a rest, but when they charge on a wireless charging pad it doesn’t. Therefore, the battery goes through its limited number of cycles faster with wireless charging and degrades faster. But is this true?

Simon Hill/Digital Trends

“A phone’s battery is not drained when you use it while charging wirelessly,” Menno Treffers, chairman of the Wireless Power Consortium, told Digital Trends. “This is a misunderstanding.”

“A phone’s battery is not drained when you use it while charging wirelessly.”

If you want to slow down charge cycles, the simplest way is to cut the amount of power you use. A rogue app that’s continually sending data in the background, or an area of poor cell connectivity where your phone is trying to boost the signal to connect, are both potentially more damaging to your battery longevity than your charging habits.

As you would expect, the manufacturing process is also important in determining battery longevity.

“The quality of the materials used makes a big difference to how long the battery lasts,” Dr. Abraham explained. “You may end up getting what you pay for.”

Do I need an adapter

If your phone appears here, you need the accessory linked and a wireless charging pad.

  • Apple: iPhone 7, iPhone 7 Plus, iPhone SE, iPhone 6S, iPhone 6S Plus, iPhone 5S
  • Samsung: Galaxy A90 5G, Galaxy A80, Galaxy A70s, Galaxy A70, Galaxy A60, Galaxy A50s, Galaxy A50, Galaxy A40, Galaxy A30s, Galaxy A30, Galaxy A20s, Galaxy A20, Galaxy A10, Galaxy M40 Galaxy M30s, Galaxy M30, Galaxy M20, Galaxy M10, Galaxy S5, Galaxy S4, Galaxy S3, Galaxy Note 3, Galaxy Note 2
  • Huawei: P30 Lite, P30, P20 Pro, P20, P20 Lite
  • Nokia: 7.2, 6.2, 6.1 Plus, 8.1, 7.1, 6, 2.2
  • OnePlus: 7T Pro, 7T, 7, 6T, 6, 5, 3T, 3, 2, 1
  • Sony: Xperia 5, Xperia 1, Xperia Z5, Xperia 10 Plus, Xperia XZ3, Xperia 10, Xperia X Performance, Xperia X Compact, Xperia XZ Premium, Xperia Z3, Xperia Z2, Xperia Z
  • Google: Pixel 2 XL, Pixel 2, Pixel XL, Pixel
  • Microsoft: Lumia 930, Lumia 925, Lumia 830

Universal wireless charging adapters

If your phone isn’t listed above, then you’ll need a universal adapter and a wireless charger. You can get these for phones with Micro USB ports (e.g. Android) and Lightning ports (e.g. iPhone).

You have a choice of an internal adapter, which slides into the back of a case, and an external adapter, which hangs outside. In most cases, we recommend internal adapters.

Internal adapter External adapter
Micro USB (Android) Ultra-Thin aircharge
Lightning (iPhone) Lightning Adapter aircharge
USB C (Android) Ultra-Thin N/A

Wireless chargers

Once you’ve determined your phone has wireless charging built in or you’ve added it with an accessory, you just need a wireless charger.

There are plenty of Qi wireless chargers available, in different sizes, shapes and colours. You can get Qi chargers for your desk, for your car, or even portable Qi battery packs. Try one of the recommendations below, or see all of our Qi wireless chargers here.

Videos

Our video team has made some excellent videos explaining wireless charging. Take a look at one of the videos linked below!

  • How to add wireless charging to an iPhone
  • Official Samsung Fast Wireless charging stand review
  • Best wireless chargers for Samsung Galaxy phones

Questions?

Have any questions about wireless charging? Leave them in the comments below, and we’ll get back to you with the answers you seek.

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